Electric vehicles are powered by rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, which have a higher energy density than lead-acid batteries in internal combustion engines and rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries in some hybrid vehicles. The high energy density of lithium-ion batteries makes them ideal for electric vehicles because they can produce more energy for their size.
Electric cars are powered exclusively by batteries, so they are much simpler and more efficient than cars with internal combustion engines. Experts estimate that the cost of lithium-ion batteries has dropped by 97% over the past 30 years, so electric cars will be just as cheap to produce as cars with internal combustion engines.
Electric car batteries degrade due to temperature, cycling, and time. Storage and operating temperatures have a significant impact on the life of electric car batteries. In general, warm weather has a negative effect on the life of electric car batteries. Batteries gradually lose their maximum potential as they go through charging cycles (discharging while driving and charging while plugged in). However, not using or recharging an electric car battery does not mean it will last forever. The average battery life decreases over time due to the aging calendar.
Unlike lithium-ion batteries used in phones and laptops, electric car batteries use an advanced battery management system (BMS) that regulates charging and discharging processes to extend battery life. This means that electric car batteries are exposed to temperature or calendar changes more often.
The question remains - how long can I wait for my electric car's battery to reach its end of life? Fortunately for consumers, the government requires electric car manufacturers to guarantee their batteries for 8 years or 100,000 miles, but California will extend that guarantee to 10 years or 150,000 miles.
As batteries for electric vehicles become cheaper to produce, companies can produce larger batteries with greater energy potential, which can increase range. In addition, improvements in technology reduce battery degradation. This means that over time, the maximum potential remains close to that of a new battery. In addition, new batteries already have a much longer range than batteries released a few years ago. After all, lithium-ion batteries are made up of many individual cells, so there is no need to replace the entire battery when it wears out. Instead, simply replacing the dead cells saves money.
The number of mandatory warranties on electric vehicle batteries (8 years, 100,000 miles) far exceeds the average warranty on internal combustion vehicle drive systems, which is 5 years or 60,000 miles. The average life of an internal combustion engine is approximately 133,000 miles. Experts estimate that the average battery life of an electric car is about 200,000 miles, but some manufacturers are already promising even more.
And the news just keeps getting better. Tesla is aiming for a millimeter battery and claims it's not that far off from achieving that goal. On average, electric car batteries discharge only 2.3% of their maximum capacity per year, so with proper care, you can safely expect an electric car battery to last as long or even longer than a complete internal combustion engine drive system.
Electric car batteries already have a long lifespan, but there are a few things owners can do to extend battery life even further.
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